Java Interview Questions with Answers (Part 1)

on 9:16 AM

This is the new series of  JAVA Interview Questions with Answers. Now each episode contains 15 Questions and Answers.
  • What's Java?
  • What does a well-written OO program look like?
  • Can you have virtual functions in Java?
  • Jack developed a program by using a Map container to hold key/value pairs. He wanted to make a change to the map. He decided to make a clone of the map in order to save the original data on side. What do you think of it? ?
  • What is more advisable to create a thread, by implementing a Runnable interface or by extending Thread class?
  • What is NullPointerException and how to handle it?
  • An application needs to load a library before it starts to run, how to code??
  • How could Java classes direct program messages to the system console, but error messages, say to a file?
  • What's the difference between an interface and an abstract class?
  • Name the containers which uses Border Layout as their default layout?
  • What do you understand by Synchronization?
  • What is Collection API?
  • Is Iterator a Class or Interface? What is its use?
  • What is similarities/difference between an Abstract class and Interface?
  • How to define an Abstract class?
  • How to define an Interface?
What's Java?
Java is an object-oriented programming language developed initially by James Gosling and colleagues at Sun Microsystems. The language, initially called Oak (named after the oak trees outside Gosling's office), was intended to replace C++, although the feature set better resembles that of Objective C. Java should not be confused with JavaScript, which shares only the name and a similar C-like syntax. Sun Microsystems currently maintains and updates Java regularly.
1. What does a well-written OO program look like?
A well-written OO program exhibits recurring structures that promote abstraction, flexibility, modularity and elegance.
2. Can you have virtual functions in Java?
Yes, all functions in Java are virtual by default. This is actually a pseudo trick question because the word "virtual" is not part of the naming convention in Java (as it is in C++, C-sharp and VB.NET), so this would be a foreign concept for someone who has only coded in Java. Virtual functions or virtual methods are functions or methods that will be redefined in derived classes.

3. Jack developed a program by using a Map container to hold key/value pairs. He wanted to make a change to the map. He decided to make a clone of the map in order to save the original data on side. What do you think of it? ?
If Jack made a clone of the map, any changes to the clone or the original map would be seen on both maps, because the clone of Map is a shallow copy. So Jack made a wrong decision.
4. What is more advisable to create a thread, by implementing a Runnable interface or by extending Thread class?
Strategically speaking, threads created by implementing Runnable interface are more advisable. If you create a thread by extending a thread class, you cannot extend any other class. If you create a thread by implementing Runnable interface, you save a space for your class to extend another class now or in future.
5. What is NullPointerException and how to handle it?
When an object is not initialized, the default value is null. When the following things happen, the NullPointerException is thrown:
--Calling the instance method of a null object.
--Accessing or modifying the field of a null object.
--Taking the length of a null as if it were an array.
--Accessing or modifying the slots of null as if it were an array.
--Throwing null as if it were a Throwable value.
The NullPointerException is a runtime exception. The best practice is to catch such exception even if it is not required by language design.

6. An application needs to load a library before it starts to run, how to code??
One option is to use a static block to load a library before anything is called. For example,
class Test {
static {
System.loadLibrary("path-to-library-file");
}
....
}
When you call new Test(), the static block will be called first before any initialization happens. Note that the static block position may matter.
7. How could Java classes direct program messages to the system console, but error messages, say to a file?
The class System has a variable out that represents the standard output, and the variable err that represents the standard error device. By default, they both point at the system console. This how the standard output could be re-directed:
Stream st = new Stream(new FileOutputStream("output.txt")); System.setErr(st); System.setOut(st);
8. What's the difference between an interface and an abstract class?
An abstract class may contain code in method bodies, which is not allowed in an interface. With abstract classes, you have to inherit your class from it and Java does not allow multiple inheritance. On the other hand, you can implement multiple interfaces in your class.
9. Name the containers which uses Border Layout as their default layout?
Containers which uses Border Layout as their default are: window, Frame and Dialog classes.
10. What do you understand by Synchronization?
Synchronization is a process of controlling the access of shared resources by the multiple threads in such a manner that only one thread can access one resource at a time. In non synchronized multithreaded application, it is possible for one thread to modify a shared object while another thread is in the process of using or updating the object's value.
Synchronization prevents such type of data corruption.
E.g. Synchronizing a function:
public synchronized void Method1 () {
// Appropriate method-related code.
}
E.g. Synchronizing a block of code inside a function:
public myFunction (){
synchronized (this) {
// Synchronized code here.
}
}
11. What is Collection API?
Answer: The Collection API is a set of classes and interfaces that support operation on collections of objects. These classes and interfaces are more flexible, more powerful, and more regular than the vectors, arrays, and hashtables if effectively replaces.
Example of classes: HashSet, HashMap, ArrayList, LinkedList, TreeSet and TreeMap.
Example of interfaces: Collection, Set, List and Map.

12. Is Iterator a Class or Interface? What is its use?
Answer: Iterator is an interface which is used to step through the elements of a Collection.
13. What is similarities/difference between an Abstract class and Interface?
Differences are as follows:
Interfaces provide a form of multiple inheritance. A class can extend only one other class. Interfaces are limited to public methods and constants with no implementation. Abstract classes can have a partial implementation, protected parts, static methods, etc.
A Class may implement several interfaces. But in case of abstract class, a class may extend only one abstract class. Interfaces are slow as it requires extra indirection to to find corresponding method in in the actual class. Abstract classes are fast.
Similarities:

Neither Abstract classes or Interface can be instantiated.

14. How to define an Abstract class?
A class containing abstract method is called Abstract class. An Abstract class can't be instantiated.
Example of Abstract class:
abstract class testAbstractClass {
protected String myString;
public String getMyString() {
return myString;
}
public abstract string anyAbstractFunction();
15. How to define an Interface?
In Java Interface defines the methods but does not implement them. Interface can include constants. A class that implements the interfaces is bound to implement all the methods defined in Interface.
Emaple of Interface:

public interface sampleInterface {
public void functionOne();

public long CONSTANT_ONE = 1000;
}










3 comments:

torres said...

Hi

I read this post two times.

I like it so much, please try to keep posting.

Let me introduce other material that may be good for our community.

Source: Second interview questions

Best regards
Henry

mary Brown said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
mary Brown said...

Great Article
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